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Lead is practically insoluble in brass and is distributed in the free grain state on the grain boundaries. Lead brass has two kinds of α and (α+β) according to its structure. Because of the harmful effects of lead, alpha lead brass is very low in temperature and plasticity, so it can only be cold deformed or hot extruded. (α+β) lead brass has good plasticity at high temperatures and can be forged.
The addition of tin to brass can significantly improve the heat resistance of the alloy, especially the ability to resist seawater corrosion. Therefore, tin brass is known as "navy brass".
Tin can be dissolved in a copper-based solid solution to provide solid solution strengthening. However, as the tin content increases, a brittle r phase (CuZnSn compound) appears in the alloy, which is not conducive to plastic deformation of the alloy. Therefore, the tin content of the tin brass is generally in the range of 0.5% to 1.5%.
Commonly used tin brasses are HSn70-1, HSn62-1, HSn60-1 and the like. The former is an alpha alloy with high plasticity and can be processed by cold and hot pressure. The latter two alloys have (α + β) two-phase structure, and often a small amount of r phase, plasticity at room temperature is not high, can only be deformed in the hot state